Carbon dating age universe
d) Even if the rate of decay is constant, without knowledge of the exact ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14in the initial sample, the dating technique is subject to question.It's assumed that the clock was set to zero when the study material was formed.
C-14 nuclei emit particles and energy at a steady, measurable rate as they decay to become stable nitrogen-14 nuclei.
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c) Atmospheric carbon forms just 0.0005% of the current carbon reservoir—99.66% of the earth's carbon exists in limestone, 0.31% in oil and gas, and 0.02% in coal.
Carbon-14 comes from nitrogen and is independent of the carbon-12 reservoir.
Researchers build a carbon-based age estimate by comparing the amount of C-14 in a specimen with the amount it had when it was first deposited.