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Although IPV screening remains controversial, some major medical organizations mandate screening. The HITS is a four-item scale rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (never) to 5 (frequently).
This tool was Initially developed and tested among family physicians and family practice offices, and since then has been evaluated in diverse outpatient settings.
Violent resistance on its own is non-reciprocal, but is reciprocal when in response to intimate terrorism.
Internal reliability and concurrent validity are acceptable.
Generally, sensitivity of this measure has found to be lower among men than among women.
In the 1970s and 1980s, studies using large, nationally representative samples resulted in findings indicating that women were as violent as men in intimate relationships.
This information diverged significantly from shelter, hospital, and police data, initiating a long-standing debate, termed "the gender symmetry debate".
In such cases, "[o]ne partner, usually a man, controls virtually every aspect of the victim's, usually a woman's, life." Johnson reported in 2001 that 97% of the perpetrators of intimate terrorism were men.